Why Successful US Brands Fail in China Pt2

Why Successful US Brands Fail in China Pt 2

Why Successful US Brands Fail in China Pt2

How did some of the world’s most beloved brands like Groupon, Uber, and Google fail in China? Although blame can’t be attributed to any single factor, one of the biggest mistakes US companies make in China is operating with a belief that success can be achieved single-handedly, without the expertise and counsel of local partners. Without a clear understanding of how to do business in China, Foreign companies tend fall into the trap of naïve assuming that with a few adjustments the same market entry methods used to launch in other can also be applied to China. What most fail to grasp is the nature of the Chinese market is fundamentally different in comparison to other countries, especially the United States. Attempting to set up shop without the counsel of a local partner is often a costly lesson that can jeopardize a brand’s entire existence.

As the second part of our two-part blog series on branding in China, here are some of the biggest ways US companies have flopped in the middle kingdom because they either did not partner effectively with a local agent or worse yet, didn’t seek any help at all.

1. No management localization strategy

An unknowingly fatal mistake made by foreign company executives is ignoring the strategic business recommendations and overall market insights of China country heads. Sometimes the slip even comes from foreign executives hiring the wrong country heads in the first place. In a nation with fundamentally different market drivers, Chinese managers are far more attuned to local conditions and their advice should be taken seriously. For example, when eBay entered China a US senior leader naively ignored the advice of local employees to run servers out of China and then switched hosting to America. The result was as soon as the company switched to US servers, traffic dropped 50% due to slow access speeds and the company never recovered.

2. Inability to navigate and manage distribution networks in China

American firms are largely unfamiliar with the nuances of distribution in China. Missteps are commonplace and can cause additional costs or time delays for that don’t effectively partner with local experts. In general, Chinese distribution companies lack the capabilities of world-class logistics and supply chain companies in the United States. Their weakest points appear in the areas inventory management, lead-time planning, distribution network optimization, and demand forecasting.

A common mistake US companies make is assuming that Chinese distribution partners have advanced knowledge of downstream supply chain management, including the ability to forecast accurately. This means foreign companies that sell in China must invest a substantial amount of capital and time to transfer knowledge of product movement requirements and performance strategy expectations to achieve KPI goals.

China has a fractured and inefficient distribution system filled with redundancies. It’s possible for as many as five tiers to exist at a given level of distribution within a single distribution network. As one can imagine, this results in lower profit margins at every level throughout the supply chain – from the manufacturer to the retailer. According to the China Business Review, “Chinese suppliers hold a large amount of inventory and restock only about three times a year on average, compared with suppliers in Europe, Japan, South Korea, and the United States, who tend to restock about 10 times a year.” The result means significantly longer lead times in China compared to countries, with advanced distribution network systems.

3. Products not reaching customers fast enough

Few US businesses seeking market presence in China grasp the depth and vastness of the China’s economic landscape. Most US companies launch in the proven metropolises – Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou. In reality, these major cities represent only a small portion of the entire Chinese population. Opportunities to capture potential customers in rising cities, such as provincial capitals, are not being realized by US businesses. While domestic companies are swiftly advancing towards these key areas of economic development, US businesses are failing to reach the customers of smaller cities fast enough.

Building business alliances through local partnerships in China is the most advantageous way to not only gain an insider’s perspective of China’s business environment, but to also ease navigation through Chinese language, bureaucracy, and sophisticated social structure. Unlike the west, where business partnerships tend to be contractual in nature, In China, all business transactions are based on relationships and trust. Local partners are an indispensable asset and critical component to every foreign business’ success story.

<< Read “Why Successful US Brands Fail in China Pt 1”

Why Successful US Brands Fail in China Pt 1

Why-Successful-US-Brands-Fail-in-China-Pt-1

In today’s globalized world, no country represents a bigger opportunity than China. It’s the world’s most populous nation with a middle class roughly the size of the entire US population fueled by a consumption driven society undergoing rapid modernization. According to Fung Business Intelligence, China is set to become the world’s largest retail market by 2018. With so much opportunity, it’s no surprise that US businesses have been eager to reel in profits by diving into the China pond.

However, like a story on repeat, most US brands enter China with optimistic enthusiasm only to fail within a few years from unsustainable profit losses. It often comes as a shocker to most Americans that many of our most beloved brands at home, just can’t seem to succeed in the Middle Kingdom. In recent years domestic giants such as Home Depot, Mattel, and Facebook have all joined the ranks of US brands that have flopped in China. The reason why US companies so often stumble in China can be attributed to a variety of factors including a steep cultural learning curve that most are unprepared and ill-equipped to handle.

As part one of a two-part blog series, here are some of the top reasons why US brands fail in China to serve as a learning guide for small and medium size businesses who aspire to achieve success in expanding their global footprint into the China market. 

1. Advertising doesn’t resonate with a Chinese audience

With a fundamentally different set of values, aspirations, and societal influences the Chinese way of advertising is inherently different in comparison to the western nations. In China advertising should be filled messages that share Confucian ideals, aspiring internationalism, and humble ambition. Although some US companies have found success, a common pitfall in Chinese advertising strategy is deploying ads that linguistically make sense, but fail to culturally translate with a Chinese context. A best practice of Chinese market advertising is to have ads reviewed by Chinese locals or a national living stateside that can effectively translate the meaning or emotion behind the words while giving alert to cultural errors. 

The diamond company, De Beers is a great example of where strong, emotion-based messaging that had achieved success in the US failed to resonate with Chinese consumers.  The slogan, “A diamond is a symbol of commitment,” meant nothing in China where engagement and wedding rings are not the cultural norm. More than half of the diamonds sold in Shanghai are purchased by women buying for themselves and are considered a status symbol, not a message of love and devotion.

2. Government and regulatory hurdles

Unbeknownst to beginners, China is one of the most challenging global markets to operate in and has remained a code yet to be cracked by many. Although the country’s open-door economic policy presents a tremendous amount of opportunity, the Chinese government’s communist undertones remain stronger than ever, billowed with layers of bureaucracy, ambiguous legislative guidelines, and a nationalist propensity to favor domestic brands. Even the most competent and proven of foreign companies become perplexed by the lack of concrete rules in regulatory procedures varying from business registration to dispute resolution.  All these factors pose a set of unique challenges for US firms that requires localized intelligence the partnership of an experienced agent.

The issue of intellectual property rights (IPR) protection is the single biggest government related hurdle companies face as they enter the Chinese market. As the number of books published on this topic indicates, IP protection in China is a major headache for global businesses. The good news is that China is evolving in technology and innovation, creating a greater demand for IP protection. A Thomson Reuters research report stated the country’s goal is to transform itself from “made in China’ to “designed in China” and showed that China became the world’s top filer of patents in 2011. As more Chinese firms become patent holders, they too, will have a vested interest in protecting their technology just like their US counterparts. Although this trend will drive the future of IP rights in China, until it becomes more commonplace, US businesses will need to keep a close eye on competitor activity.

It’s a tough learning curve, but global companies that want to thrive in China must learn the nuances of Beijing’s loosely defined laws and autocratic government style while abiding by the rules. Ultimately, this gives companies two options: learn, adapt, and compromise or leave the market. 

3. Product localization strategy either not implemented or has failed miserably due to lack of research and cultural understanding

A common thread in the pattern of China market failures is brands not adapting business and product development strategies to fit local market conditions. A typical mistake would be transferring methodologies that have worked in America to China with little effort to localize product offerings. On the other hand, forward-thinking companies that do attempt to localize product offerings, often struggle with cultural and linguistic barriers.

For example, Mattel entered China with the introduction of Barbie. Although the doll itself was somewhat well received, the brand was not. In 2009 Mattel opened the world’s largest “House of Barbie” in Shanghai. The company spent millions of dollars making a six-story paradise to introduce and sell the ‘Barbie Lifestyle’. The store included a hair and nail salon, cocktail bar, spa, and restaurant. Where did Mattel go wrong? They failed to understand the market and what makes Chinese tick. For a brand that was making its’s first introduction into China the shop was over the top and confusing between the mix of Children’s toys and adult pleasures (fancy martinis, bust-enhancement treatments etc.)

4. Underestimation of domestic competition

A common pitfall of many US companies is a tendency to underestimate the domestic competition in China, with a misguided belief that Chinese firms lack strategic ability in organizational management, sales, and marketing. When western companies began leaving a footprint in China almost 30 years ago, this was undoubtedly the case. Time has told another story as Chinese brands have gradually evolved and have built stronger sales and marketing competencies. As China transforms from a manufacturing to services based economy, Chinese businesses are also becoming more competitive on product quality, innovation and branding. 

5. Unfamiliarity with China’s E-commerce landscape and how to digitally connect with online shoppers

The growth of China’s e-commerce landscape is breathtaking, growing exponentially year after year. In China, online shopping is more than a trend; it’s a cultural phenomenon. Domestic players such as Alibaba’s Taobao and JD dominate the e-commerce landscape through scale and low-price points. One Chinese Tech Giant in particular, Tencent has found wild success through the fusion of e-commerce, social media, and advanced online payment systems that can manage every facet of one’s financial life within a single platform known as We Chat. Consequently, US companies such as Amazon and eBay lack the diverse functionality of Chinese online platforms and simply don’t measure up for an audience whose daily lives are already tightly interwoven within China’s digital ecosystem. This means US brands must invest the time to gain the competencies required to launch an online presence that’s in sync with the online habits and norms in China.

Once an online marketplace presence is established, culturally adept US companies will take pro-active measures to enhance their pre-sales support channels. Because China is a nation with a rampant supply of counterfeit goods and tainted consumables, a low-trust society has emerged where shoppers seek an additional level of product support. An excellent way to establish the trust of Chinese consumers is to utilize resources such as online chatbots where buyers can build confidence by asking questions before making a purchase. 

Countless American brands have ambitiously entered China only to emerge a few years later perplexed, battered, and defeated. Their brimming confidence from previous global successes tends to quickly evaporates in a market where they’re often ill-equipped to enter. To achieve success in China, US firms will need to consciously make an effort to learn from the mistakes of companies who’ve failed in the past while paying attention to the underlying success factors of bands that have prevailed in perhaps the world’s most misunderstood marketplace.

We know China’s learning curve is steep and for that reason have created a second blog to expand on this topic further. In the next blog of this two-part series, we’ll dive into one of the single biggest contributing factors of why US brands struggle in China with insights to propel your China market strategy in the right direction. 

Read “Why Successful US Brands Fail in China Pt 2” >>

What’s Next for Manufacturing in China?

What is something you can think of that can’t successfully be outsourced in China?

Think long and hard about this. Resist the temptation to veer toward intangibles or time sensitive services with obvious geographical barriers such as a haircut or plumbing repair. What product theoretically cannot be manufactured in China? How about a portrait? I have an acquaintance that has connected with amazingly talented artists who will take a family photo and reproduce a framed, hand painted, oil on canvas likeness taken from a photograph.

It will have the same level of detail and quality as those done by artists in the U.S. costing a minimum of $1200-$2500 just for the painting itself. This does not include the frame which can be another $350-$500. The exact quality portrait from China can be delivered to your doorsteps for $450 or about a quarter or less that which someone would expect to pay here. Why is this?

If you said labor cost you are only partly correct. There are many more factors that play into “the China price” for which Westerners have had an insatiable appetite since the Wal Mart effect took hold in the early nineties. Yet now writers, politicians and economists say the tide is turning. Many assert that currency fluctuation, labor shortages near China’s coastlines, and a rising middle class, are quickly narrowing the cost gap between China and the West. They might be forgetting one thing though according to Mike Bellamy, author of The Essential Guide to China Sourcing , “there is no Next China.”

Rising Labor Costs in China

 

rising labor costs china

In a Roya Wolverson interview published in Time, May 16, 2011, Pin Li, President of the Wanxiang America Corporation stated that “rising labor costs in China will only cause inflation and not necessarily jobs returning to the U.S.” He further explained that what this means is “instead of paying $1 for latex gloves the price may rise to $2 and will still represent the lowest cost available in the world.”

In other words, assuming material costs are consistent globally, even doubling or tripling the average monthly wage of Chinese factory employees still does not bring total cost of goods in line with U.S. workers.

In a recent conversation, Bellamy, Chairman of the Advisory Board for China Sourcing Information Center begins to make the “No Next China” case with the notion that China’s economy is still vastly lopsided in its dependence on exporting. The Chinese and its neveaux riche’ have created the world’s second largest economy that many predict will be bigger than the U.S. within the next decade. The only fuel to keep this burning is the demand for cheap(er) exports. A growing middle class also means bolstered domestic consumption, particularly as brands become more prevalent with Chinese consumers. But to sustain economic growth, exports have to remain a big chunk of the equation.

A Shift By Coastal Manufacturing Regions

The question may not be so much about “Made in China” as it is “What will be Made in China?” Sure there is great capacity and infrastructure in coastal regions but there may be a shift developing with the evolution of improved skill sets and wage increases. Dr. Eric Thun , lecturer in Chinese Business Studies at the University of Oxford China Center, says “pushing manufacturing into high value-added activity is very much what the government wants. This kind of cost pressure stimulates upgrading.”

Bellamy adds, “because China’s economy is still heavily export dependent at present, over the past years there have been concerns about the China government promoting the interior too fast at the expense of the coast. This could have major side effects on the much needed revenue stream gained by supplying product to overseas buyers. But, as April data demonstrates to policy makers, the development of the interior is not having a major impact on exports. “

The Role Of Appreciation In Chinese Currency To U.S. Job Creation

Since June, 2010 when currency truly began floating, the RMB has appreciated 6% against the US dollar. Depending on whom you talk to however, the RMB is still undervalued by as much as 25%. Add to this CPI inflation and productivity growth rates (Chinese worker productivity is growing faster than U.S.) and the RMB will continue to be undervalued for five years or more.

Pin Li argues that “currency can help but it also can hurt. Structural issues are more fundamental for the U.S. and China. This is more of a political question than any economist can even measure. Politically we have to pretend it’s an issue. But the reality is that jobs from China won’t come to the U.S. They’ll go to Mexico, Korea, and Indonesia. And that means the imports that came from China will now cost more which also doesn’t solve the deficit issue.”

Bellamy claims “we can expect that the US government will probably use the April export record to put pressure on China to allow their currency to appreciate. The China government has a plan in place for a slow but steady increase as opposed to a dramatic adjustment as desired by the US. Don’t expect China to change their plan just because of this April data and any related pressure from the USA.”

China as a Market

Li’s passive reference to the deficit is interesting and should not go unnoticed. While many grip about jobs, only a small percentage of Western companies have invested in growing market share in China.

In an October 6, 2010 Bloomberg Press report it was estimated that China market was valued at $150 billion in potential goods and services or a top ten global opportunity for U.S. companies. “U.S. companies have experienced tremendous commercial success in China’s market and the prospects for future growth are significant,” said Erin Ennis, vice president of the U.S.-China Business Council.

Beijing has a $145 billion trade surplus with the U.S., more than its deficit with the next seven- largest partners combined. But is this solely due to undervalued currency and cheap labor? Could it be more the apathetic or myopic strategies of only selling into North American and European markets and not breaking from traditional business models?

Pin Li makes a bold statement when he asserts, “Firms’ access to Chinese should be their more of a concern than an unbalanced currency.”

The Next 5 Years

China remains a factory to the world. Government subsidized infrastructure has ensured overcapacity of manufacturing availability. One needs to simply travel from town to town; cranes as far as the eye can see. Staggering development continues in all sectors such as transportation, industrial, housing, recreation, hospitals, shopping centers, and resorts. Innovation and branding are now woven into the next generation’s mindset with Beijing’s full support. There is no next China. Whether as adversary, trading partner, or ally the future will depend on setting priorities and building mutual trust.

David Alexander is President of BaySource Global www.baysourceglobal.com

4 Ways China And The U.S. Could Build Brands Together

selling chinese products in america

A question was recently posed on a LinkedIn Group asking why there aren’t more Chinese companies selling brands into the U.S.

Rather than taking a myopic view on the question or dismissing the notion that Chinese brands per se’ have little to no chance of overcoming the stereotype of the U.S. consumer,  it strikes me that the real opportunities continue to lie in synergizing and combining strengths, resources and talents.  The skills for identifying and penetrating the best distribution channels in the U.S. are here.  If a Chinese entity wants to lever this market they are wise to understand that this can’t be done (yet) with a Chinese brand or with Chinese sales and marketing.

Conversely however, through innovation, low cost labor and subsidies, China remains the factory to the world in multiple categories.  There are facilities in China that are far superior to our own.  What has been increasingly evident is China’s transformation from merely an OEM to an ODM supplier meaning that in addition to offering strictly manufacturing China is now becoming a low cost design and engineering hub.  So don’t think cheap cost is the only driver for China’s potential here.

Beijing has taken note of the dearth of Chinese brands.

“We’ve lost a bucketload of money to foreigners because they have brands and we don’t,” complained Fan Chunyong, the secretary general of the China Industrial Overseas Development and Planning Association. “Our clothes are Italian, French, German, so the profits are all leaving China. . . . We need to create brands, and fast.”

So according to Tom Pomfret’s Washington Post article titled, “Beijing tries to push beyond Made in China Status,” the government has responded in lavish status by embracing a “going out” strategy http://bit.ly/going-out  backing firms seeking to seeking to buy foreign businesses and gain a foothold on innovation.

If China wants to deploy its assets by capturing a piece of a market here OR if a U.S. company wants to sell into the Chinese market here are four key considerations.

1.  A Brand Is A Very Different Thing Between Our Two Countries

Most brands sold into China are Western.  For the Chinese it is more cache’ or prestige that drives demand.  For the U.S. a brand is many things but mostly involves years of exposure and dollars spent positioning the brand to its respective markets (assuming high quality and value are the cost of admission).  Only in the last 10 years or so has there been demand for consumer brands in China yet there is almost built in demand for established brands from the West.

2.  Successes and Failures of Previous Attempts

For U.S. companies wanting to tap into the China market they should consider brands like Loreal, Buick, and Coke to see what has been successful and what has failed.  You can’t simply put a known label on a piece of junk and believe you’ll capture the loyalty of the Chinese market.  The Chinese want prestige yes, but they also focus on safety and quality too.  Are you speaking to a younger audience;  the decision influencers of the future? See http://bit.ly/caWdra.

What about distribution channels?  We may understand traditional retail here but it is a completely different game in China.  According to the China Chain Store and Franchise Association, the number of stores of the 100 largest retailers in China increased 18.9% in 2009. The 100 largest retail chains sold only 11% of all consumer goods in China.  How is your experience marketing to kiosks and neighborhoods?  Have you ever set up a sales force to tap into a billion person market?

3. Patience is a Virtue

If a Chinese investor(s) wants to sell goods into the U.S. they will have to have reasonable expectations for investment in gaining market share.  They won’t necessarily understand or be patient with the initial burn rate of capital for their ROI so tell them to fund the endeavor, put it the hands of U.S. marketing professionals and apply their expertise and focus on the supply chain and manufacturing.  This isn’t to suggest in a cavalier way that they should be totally hands off.  As principals they have every right to monitor their investments.

4. Future Opportunities

There are enormous opportunities in the creation of funds that don’t necessarily follow the typical M&A or PE models when it comes to risk or multiples.  There are many well known companies who through their years of staying power still maintain significant brand equity yet may only be doing $10-$50MM in sales–not enough to fly on the radar of big deal makers yet still very viable with the right investor profile.

Take that state of the art factory you have in Shenzhen and manufacture AND OWN an old U.S. brand putting together a “newco” re-launch model.  There has never been a better time and available talent here.

We are not going to see Chinese or U.S. brands in the future but rather well funded global brands that offer businesses or consumers the best return for their investment.

David Alexander is President, North America for BaySource Global, a strategic solutions provider specializing in specialized sourcing, project management, distribution and fulfillment in China.    www.baysourceglobal.com

China News

Each day we read and hear more and more about the co-mingling of China and the U.S. as these two interdependent nations refine their geopolitical position with each other and the rest of the world.  China is a vast nation teeming with industrious minded entreprenuers who are seeking their fortune much in the same way as U.S. pioneers in the early 1900s.  Our countries are indissolubly linked from an economic standpoint and nothing on the horizon seems to contradict this long term description of our relationship.  China, while still “factory to the world,” will forge ahead in Western style to build consumer brands, capitalize on the meteoric rise of a middle class market, and play a vital role in world financial markets.  It is a story that will be amazing to see unfold and in no way does the ending have to be a negative one as both nations continue to innovate and lever their strengths and resources. 

If you or your colleagues and associates have the need for a competent and experienced partner to manage your company’s China business, we want to be just that.  We have a China staff of over 30 who have working knowledge of hundreds of industries and disciplines.  Our specialties are complex manufacturing assignments, supply chain management, fulfillment and distribution in China, greenfielding, and highly competent project management.  We are integrity driven, quality focused and have an ardent desire to see our clients succeed in every undertaking. 

Thank you for allowing us to continue to reach out to you with newsletters and emails.  Should your business plans include any aspect of dealing with China, please don’t hesitate to contact us for a free, no-obligation consultation.  

China to continue RMB exchange rate reform Chinese President Hu Jintao reiterated on May 24th that China will continue to steadily advance the reform of the formation mechanism of the RMB exchange rate under the principle of independent decision-making, controllability and gradual progress. Hu made the remarks at the opening ceremony of the second round of China-US Strategic and Economic Dialogue in Beijing. 

Hu said China will continue to pursue a win-win strategy of opening up. The country would expand market access in keeping with established international economic and trading rules, support the improvement of international trading and financial systems, and askance trade and investment liberalization and facilitation. 

On China’s effort to accelerate the transformation of its economic development pattern, he said, “We will make great effort to expand domestic demand and increase household consumption, vigorously promote sounds and balanced growth of external trade, and reject protectionism in all manifestations.” 

China’s trade back into surplus After a US$7.2bn deficit in March, China’s trade retuned to surplus in April but shrank 87% from a year earlier due to faster growth in imports. The trade surplus stood at US$1.68bn in April, according to the General Administration of Customs. Exports rose 30.5% you to US$119.92bn in April, while imports surged 49.7% to US$118.24bn.

Harley Sales Up Harley Davidson Inc has reported that sales in China doubled last year, according to Rodney Copes, VP of international sales. Since it entered China in 2005, Harley has developed four dealers nationwide – one in Shanghai – and plans to open four new dealerships this year in Wenzhou, Xiamen, Dalian and Chengdu. 

Foreign Investment Reflecting the determination of China’s central government to attract additional foreign investment-and to direct that capital towards industries and regions that serve the government’s broader social and economic goals-the State Council issued Several Opinions on Further Utilizing Foreign Capital (Foreign Capital Utilization Opinions) on April 6, 2010. The Foreign Capital Utilization Opinions set priorities that encourage foreign investment in research and development centers, high-end manufacturing, high and new technology, alternative energy, and other environmentally friendly industries while discouraging investment within industries that consume large amounts of energy, pollute the environment, or are already over capacity in China. 

Shanghai Pudong – new policy on JVs On 13th April 2010, The Shanghai Pudong People’s Government issued the Tentative Measures On Setting Up A Sino-foreign Equity Joint Venture (“EJV”) and Cooperative Joint Venture (“CJV”) In Pudong (“Tentative Measures”). The Tentative Measures have been introduced to allow domestic natural persons to establish EJVs and CJVs in the Pudong New Area. The Tentative Measures came into effect on 1 May 2010 for a trial period of 2 years. 

The Chinese laws on joint ventures, which were initially issued in 1979 and 1988 respectively, do not allow domestic natural persons to set up EJVs or CJVs with foreign companies or individuals. Such restrictions do not conform to the principle of “national treatment” and so have been seen as being an obstacle to domestic individuals hoping to cooperate with foreign entities and/or individuals. As the Chinese people are becoming more prosperous, pressure has increased to abolish the existing restriction. 

The usual way to circumvent the restrictions is for a Chinese natural person to set up a limited liability company (normally a one-person company), and to use the new company as a vehicle to partner foreign parties. However this route is very inconvenient and the issue of the “invisible investor” has led to many disputes between contracting parties. 

Foreign investors have encountered difficulties when trying to partner with a Chinese citizen they trust. There has been rapid growth int he need for cooperation between individuals from SMEs and foreign individuals in high-tech and creative industries. As the officials from Pudong said, “We have changed because such change is required.” 

Highest Level of Confidence  Chinese consumer confidence rose int he first quarter of the year to the highest level since 2007 as people became more optimistic over their future, a survey by Nielson Co and the National Bureau of Statistics. The Consumer Confidence Index in China climbed to a three-year high, bolstered by better employment prospects. However, people’s willingness to spend fell slightly due to soaring asset prices.

World Expo Opens  Shanghai kicked off the 2010 World Expo with an extravagant opening ceremony and fireworks show. The two-hour performance at the new US$270m Expo Culture Centre ended with a spectacular outdoor multimedia show punctuated by a parade of hundreds of national flags carried by boats along the city’s Huangpu River. The city has spent US$45bn, more than Beijing spent not he 2008 Olympics, to put on what it says will be the biggest Expo ever.

 

David Alexander is President of BaySource Global, a U.S. based manufacturing and project management firm with offices in Shenzhen and Shanghai. www.baysourceglobal.com